Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing

India and Russia has decided to increase cooperation in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Blockchain System, and Quantum Computing.

• In the first India-Russia Strategic Economic Dialogue at St Petersburg, both countries decided to increase cooperation in the field of Artificial Intelligence, blockchain system, quantum computing, financial Technology and explore the possibility of joint work in healthcare.
• The two nations also agreed on tourism being a valuable tool for increasing people-to-people contact and economic cooperation.

What is a Quantum Computer?
What is Quantum Mechanics? Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
• A quantum computer is a type of computer that uses quantum mechanics so that it can perform certain kinds of computation more efficiently than a regular computer can.
• A normal computer stores all information in a series of 0’s and 1’s. Each unit in this series of 0’s and 1’s is called a bit, the smallest unit of memory. So, a bit can be set to either 0 or 1.
• A quantum computer does not use bits to store information. Instead, it uses something called qubits (or Quantum bits).

  • Each qubit can not only be set to 1 or 0, but it can also be set to 1 and 0 at the same time. This is called Superposition.

• Because a quantum computer can contain these multiple states simultaneously, it can do multiple calculations simultaneously and thus has the potential to be millions of times more powerful than today’s most powerful supercomputers.

Are other Countries using Quantum Computers?
• China developed the world’s first quantum satellite, called Quantum Experiments at Space Scaler (QUESS) satellite. It is also called Micius, and used it to establish hack-proof communications system by transmitting uncrackable keys from space to the ground.
• Researchers from the National University of Singapore have built a nano-satellite with a quantum communication payload.
• Scientists from the University of Waterloo have demonstrated the first quantum key distribution transmissions from a ground transmitter to a quantum payload on a moving aircraft.

Has India taken Initiatives in Quantum Computing?
• Government set up the initiative – Quantum Information Science and Technology (QuST) to promote the future computation which will have a huge impact on India.
Information Science and Technology (QuST) to promote the future computation which will have a huge impact on India.

Some Simple Quantum Terms
• A State of a quantum particle is the mathematical function which defines all possible parameters of the particle like speed, energy, momentum, etc.
Superposition: It is a phenomenon in the quantum mechanics in which a particle can be in more than one state at the same time.
Entanglement: Entanglement is said to happen when two or more quantum particles are correlated with each other in such a manner that the change in the state of one causes an immediate and definitive change in the state of the other particle. This change in the state of the other particle happens instantaneously, irrespective of the physical distance between them.

  • Objective: The objective of QuST is to develop quantum computers and propel the development of advanced mathematical quantum techniques, algorithms and theory of quantum information systems.

ISRO’s Collaboration with Raman Research Institute (RRI) will develop Secure Quantum Communications in Space and initiated a mega project called “Quantum Experiments Using Satellite Technology (QUEST)”
• Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai, has made a prototype three-qubit processor.

Quantum computing provides immense opportunities for the world. Due to the highly efficient nature of quantum computing it can be used greatly enhance our computational capacities in all fields including:
National Security: Can quickly break any existing security code. Designing unbreakable code then would also need some help from quantum computing.
Precision Measurement: Quantum computers can provide extraordinary level of precision, and spawn a new generation of devices.
Medical benefits: Discover tumours in time and develop better targeting drugs.