Internal Security Challenges

The multifarious threats to the Internal Security of India are purportedly showing signs of resurgence as per recent events.

About: Recent events in news have brought the multifarious internal security threat again in limelight, as follows: Recent Naxal attack in Chattisgarh just before State assembly elections. Also,  Grenade attack in Amritsar during a religious ceremony in Nirankari Bhawan, seen by some as a sign of resurgence of Khalistani movement. The incessant attacks on Indian soldiers and policemen in Jammu and Kashmir.

In this article, we will discuss internal security challenges plaguing India from Left Wing Extremism (LWE) in Red corridor to continuously growing Jammu and Kashmir militancy.

Various Challenges to India’s Internal Security:
Naxalism: Among the internal security perils afflicting India, an alarmingly burgeoning is LWE commonly dubbed as the Naxal-Maoist threat.
Terrorism: Pathankot attack that took place on 31st December 2015, the attack of 26/11 on the Taj hotel, Indian parliament attack in 2001 etc are the grim reminders how fatal the menace of terrorism can be.
Insurgency: Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions among which some favor a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Some groups demand complete independence.
Separatist movements: Separatist feelings in some states of India, notably Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Assam and in Naxal-Maoist afflicted regions are major threat to unity and integrity of India.
Illegal Migration:
In 2000, India with its net migration being 6.3 million persons ranked the sixth among the top ten countries in the world with largest international migrant population.
Identity threat for local population, demographic changes, recruitment of migrants by anti-state actors etc are some of the security issue posed by migrants
Cyber driven crimes: With cybercrimes opening up as a new battlefront, India needs to fortify its information networks against malware.
Drug trafficking: This two-way illegal movement of narcotics and drugs pose a significant threat to the national security as the breach of international borders indicate that arms smuggling and infiltration is equally feasible along with terror financing by the money generated by the illegal sale of narcotics and drugs.
Communalism and Growing Regional Assertiveness: The growth of religious polarization, increasing incidents of mob violence as recently seen in Uttar Pradesh where policemen is killed and enhanced violence in various regions in the name of reservation, agricultural distress etc. pose a significant internal security challenge to India in the longer run.

LEFT WING EXTREMISM
About:
• Recently, Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) blasts in Chattisgarh on Assembly poll evening caused several casualties.

“Naxalism remains the biggest internal security challenge and it is imperative to control Left-wing extremism for the country’s growth”
—Former PM Dr. Manmohan Singh

Factors Responsible for Rise and Spread of LWE:
India’s Land Reform Policy: Its poor implementation led to emergence of disgruntled community in Naxalbari area of West Bengal in late 1960s from where naxalism spread across India.
Lack of development and economic inequality: High development-deficit and economic disparity characterizes the districts comprising the red corridor. They are among the poorest in the country.
• Development Projects and Tribal Alienation: Resource mismanagement and systematic marginalization due to development projects in the 1980s displaced tribals from
their lands.
• Social Conditions: The area encompassed by the red corridor tends to have stratified societies, with caste and feudal divisions and violence associated with friction between different social groups.
• Governance deficit: Lack of basic education and healthcare facilities and sustainable employment; Infrastructure deficit, Issues related to law and order, and absence of operational grievance redressal mechanism are some very common problems.

• Geographical factors: The terrain in these areas is suitable for guerrilla tactics.

Challenges in Dealing with LWE:

• Poor Governance acts as Administrative Hurdles: It led to formation of virtual parallel government run by Maoists in Dandakaranya region in east-central India.

Nexus with Anti-India forces: Naxals collaboration with international Maoist movements along with increasing nexus between the Naxals, pro-Azadi leaders in Jammu and Kashmir and ULFA (Assam) gave it more strength.

 Various other challenges remain such as Intellectual support to Naxalism:

Urban Naxalism: Recently, the dissenting intellectual voices against any form of status quo in India are suppressed by terming them as urban naxals.

Government’s Strategy to Deal with LWE:

•Ban on CPI Maoist, along with all its formations and front organizations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

Central Assistance to LWE States: It includes Providing Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) and Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (CoBRA)  Setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti-Terrorism (CIAT) schools,

Geographical factors: The terrain in these areas is suitable for guerrilla tactics. Challenges in Dealing with LWE:

Poor Governance acts as Administrative Hurdles: It led to formation of virtual parallel government run by Maoists in Dandakaranya region in east-central India.

Nexus with Anti-India forces: Naxals collaboration with international Maoist movements along with increasing nexus between the Naxals, pro-Azadi leaders in Jammu and Kashmir and ULFA (Assam) gave it more strength.

Various other challenges remain such as Intellectual support to Naxalism- Urban Naxalism: Recently, the dissenting intellectual voices against any form of status quo in India are suppressed by terming them as urban naxals.

• Developmental Assistance through various schemes:

Security Related Expenditure Scheme,  Special Infrastructure Scheme,  Civic Action Programme

• Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy for those LWE cadre who surrendered and are ready to Rehabilitate.

Roshani Scheme (Ministry of Rural Development): It is a placement linked skill development scheme for rural and tribal youth in worst LWE affected districts of nine states.

SAMADHAN: It suggests 8 ways of combating LWE by making counter-Maoist operations intelligence-based. It consist of short/long term policies:
S Smart Leadership A Aggressive Strategy M Motivation and Training A Actionable Intelligence
D Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas) H Harnessing Technology A Action plan for Each Theatre N No access to Financing.

 Running Models of Bridging the Development and Extremism gap:

 Transformation of Aspirational Districts Program: It aims to quickly and effectively transform 117 most backward districts chosen and it is anchored by NITI Aaayog.

Saranda Action Plan: It is rural livelihood development plan for naxal hit areas of under developed Saranda Region in Jharkhand

Way Ahead: Suggestions by 2nd ARC: The govt. must try to implement these recommendations of 2nd Administrative Reform Commission:
• Conflict Resolution through Negotiations with the extremist outfits,

• The system of periodic official inspections and review of organizational performances,

• Enhance the capacity of the security forces; • Sensitization of the police and paramilitary personnel

• Formation of trained Special Task Forces on the pattern of the Greyhounds in Andhra Pradesh,

• Strengthening local level police stations, adequately staffed by local recruits

• For effective implementation of the Forest Rights Act, 2006, multidisciplinary Oversight Committees may be constituted to ensure that its implementation does not adversely affect the local ecosystems.

• Addressing development deficit by increasing funds for developmental schemes and land reforms initiatives • Break the nexus between illegal mining/forest contractors and extremists which provide financing. To achieve this, special anti-extortion and anti-money laundering cell should be established

• Use Border Roads Organization (BRO) as implementing agency for large infrastructure projects.

 

333 total views, 7 views today