AMAN naval exercise of Pakistan held without U.S. participation this year.

• Pakistan recently wrapped up its 6th AMAN biennial multinational naval exercise.
• AMAN-19 involved 46 countries as well as international warships and observers.
• AMAN is one of the few multinational exercises where Chinese and U.S. warships regularly participate. But no American warships participated this year.
• AMAN-19 was held as Pakistan increasingly focuses on maritime security arising from the country’s dependence on seaborne trade, its need to protect the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor project, and its straddling sea lanes from the Arabian Gulf.
• AMAN is important for Pakistan, partly due to India’s absence. Islamabad regards this as a propaganda win, but there would be more international approval were India to be invited
— and accepted.